Oliver Sacks: His Own Life
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Gilbert ie Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. Gilbert Ч and the composer Arthur Sullivan Ч kiind to the works they jointly created. The two men collaborated on fourteen comic operas between andof which H. Gilbert, who wrote the libretti for these operas, created fanciful "topsy-turvy" worlds where each absurdity is taken to its logical conclusionЧfairies rub elbows with British lords, flirting is a capital offence, gondoliers ascend to the monarchy, and pirates emerge as noblemen who have gone astray.
Their operas have enjoyed broad and enduring international success and are still performed frequently throughout the English-speaking world.
Gilbert was born arthud London on 18 November His father, Williamwas a naval surgeon who later wrote novels and short stories, some of which included illustrations by oof son. In the Bab Ballads and his early plays, Gilbert developed a unique "topsy-turvy" style in which humour was derived by setting up a ridiculous premise and working out its logical consequences, however absurd.
Director and playwright Mike Leigh described the "Gilbertian" style as follows:. With great fluidity and freedom, [Gilbert] continually challenges our natural expectations.
First, within the framework of the story, he makes bizarre things happen, and turns the world on its head. Thus the Learned Judge marries the Plaintiff, the soldiers metamorphose into aesthetesand so on, and nearly every opera is resolved by a deft moving of the goalposts His genius is to fuse opposites with an imperceptible sleight of hand, to blend the surreal with the real, and the caricature with the natural.
In other words, to tell a perfectly outrageous story in a completely deadpan way. Gilbert developed his innovative theories on the art of stage direction, following theatrical reformer Tom Robertson.
At a rehearsal for one of these entertainments, Ages Arhturinthe composer Frederic Clay introduced Gilbert to his friend, the young composer Arthur Sullivan.
Sullivan was born in London on 13 May His father was a what is the best kind of bmx bike what kind of animal is arthur on pbs, and by the time Arthur had reached the age of eight, he was proficient with all the instruments in the band. In school he began to compose anthems and songs. Inhe received the first Mendelssohn Scholarship and studied at the Royal Academy of Music and then at Leipzigwhere he also took up conducting.
His graduation piece, completed inwas a suite of incidental music to Shakespeare's The Tempest. Revised and expanded, it was performed at the Crystal Palace in and was an immediate sensation. He began building a reputation as England's most promising young composer, composing a symphony, a concerto, and several overtures, among them the Overture di Balloin He worked as how to charge a heat pump system church organist and composed numerous hymnspopular songs, and parlour ballads.
Sullivan's first foray into comic opera was Cox and Boxwritten with librettist F. Burnand for an informal gathering of friends. Public performance followed, with W. Gilbert then writing dramatic criticism for the magazine Fun saying that Sullivan's score "is, in many places, of too high a class for the grotesquely absurd plot to which it is wedded.
Sullivan and Burnand's second opera, The Contrabandista was not as successful. The piece was an extravaganza in which the classical Greek gods, grown elderly, are temporarily replaced by a troupe of ia actors and actresses, one of whom is the eponymous Thespisthe Greek father of the drama.
Thespis opened on Boxing Day and ran for 63 performances. It outran five of its nine competitors for the holiday season, and its run was extended beyond the length of a normal run at the Gaiety,  but no one at the time anticipated that this was the beginning of a great collaboration.
Two what does medicare part a cover in skilled nursing facilities the male characters were played by women, whose shapely arthu were put on display in a fashion that Gilbert later condemned.
Over the next three years, Gilbert and Sullivan did not have occasion to work together again, but each man became more eminent how to refinish a wood burning stove his field. Gilbert worked with Frederic Clay on Happy Arcadia and with Alfred Cellier on Topsyturveydomand wrote The Wicked World Sweethearts and several other libretti, farces, extravaganzas, fairy comedies, dramas and adaptations.
At the same time, the audience for theatre was growing because of the rapidly expanding British population; improvement in education and the standard of living, especially of the middle class; improving public transportation; and installation of street lighting, which how to do arabian style scarf travel home from the theatre safer. The number of pianos manufactured in England doubled between and as more people began to play parlour music at home and more theatres and concert halls opened.
InGilbert wrote a short libretto on commission from producer-conductor Carl Rosawhose wife would have played the leading role, but her death in childbirth cancelled the project.
Carte knew znimal Gilbert's libretto for Rosa and suggested that Sullivan write a score for it. Gilbert read the piece to Sullivan in What kind of animal is arthur on pbsand the composer was delighted with it; Trial by Jury was composed and staged in a matter of weeks.
The piece is one of Gilbert's humorous spoofs of the law and the legal profession, based on his short experience as a barrister. It concerns a breach of promise of marriage suit.
The defendant argues that damages should be slight, since ankmal is such a very bad lot," while the plaintiff argues that she loves the defendant fervently and seeks "substantial damages. Provincial tours and productions at other theatres quickly followed. Fred Sullivan was the prototype for the " patter " comic baritone roles in the later operas. Burnand wrote that he "was one of the most naturally comic little men I ever came adthur.
He, too, was a first-rate practical musician As he was the most absurd person, so was he the very kindliest The "patter" baritone animql "principal comedian", as these roles later were called would often assume the leading role in Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operas, and was usually allotted the speedy patter songs.
After the success of Trial by JuryGilbert and Sullivan were suddenly in demand ,ind write more operas together. Over the next two years, Richard D'Oyly Carte and Carl Rosa were two of several theatrical managers who negotiated with the team but were unable to come to terms. Carte proposed a revival of Thespis for the Christmas season, which Gilbert and Sullivan would have revised, but he was unable to obtain financing for the project. In earlyCarte requested that Gilbert and Sullivan create another one-act opera on the theme of burglars, but this was never completed.
Carte's real ambition was to develop an English form of light opera that would displace the anumal burlesques and badly translated French operettas then dominating the London stage. He assembled a syndicate and formed the Comedy Opera Company, with Gilbert and Whay commissioned to write a comic opera that would serve as the centrepiece for an evening's entertainment.
Gilbert found a subject in one of his own short stories, "The Elixir of Love", which concerned the complications arising when a love potion is distributed to all the residents of a small village.
The leading character was a Cockney businessman who happened to be a sorcerer, a purveyor of blessings not much called for and curses very popular. Gilbert and Sullivan were tireless taskmasters, seeing to it that The Sorcerer opened as a fully polished production, in marked contrast to the under-rehearsed Thespis.
Nevertheless, Carte and his syndicate were sufficiently encouraged to commission another full-length opera from the team. Gilbert and Sullivan scored their first international hit with H. Pinaforesatirising the rise of unqualified people to positions of authority and poking good-natured fun at the Royal Navy and the English obsession with social status building on a theme introduced in The Sorcererlove between members of different social classes.
As lf many of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, a surprise twist changes everything dramatically near the end of the story. Gilbert oversaw the designs of sets and costumes, and he directed the performers on stage.
The result was a new crispness and polish in what kind of animal is arthur on pbs English musical theatre. Our stage discipline was strict and unbending. Gilbert's word was law; he thoroughly worked out in his own mind every bit of action, by-play and grouping, and allowed no deviation from his plan.
He had unlimited fertility of invention in comic business and would allow no gag, no clowning, no departure from his own definite conception. Sullivan's musical conception was equally clear-cut and decided. Every part must be made subservient to the whole, and his sarcasms overwhelmed the transgressor with scorn.
But there was nothing to hurt or offend us in this unswerving discipline, we took their good-humoured raillery as our due when we failed in our rendering or overstepped the bounds; and the patience and enthusiasm ehat that artistic pair so infected all of us that we worked willingly for hours and hours at rehearsals, trying with all our might to realize the conceptions of those two brilliant minds.
Pinafore ran in London for performances,  the second longest run of any musical theatre piece in history up to that time after the operetta Les cloches de Corneville. The disgruntled former partners, who had invested in the production with no return, staged a public fracas, sending a group of thugs to seize the scenery during a performance.
Stagehands successfully managed to ward off their backstage attackers. The libretto of H. Pinafore relied on stock character types, many of which were familiar from European opera and some of which grew out of Gilbert's earlier association with the German Reeds : the heroic protagonist tenor and his love-interest soprano ; the older woman with a secret or a sharp tongue contralto ; how to split music from video baffled lyric baritone Чthe girl's father; and a classic villain bass-baritone.
Gilbert and Sullivan added the element of the comic patter-singing character. With the success of H. Pinaforethe D'Oyly Carte repertory and production system was cemented, and each us would make use of these stock character types.
Before The SorcererGilbert had constructed his plays around the established stars of whatever theatre he happened to be writing for, as had been the case with Thespis and Trial by Jury. Building on the team he artthur assembled for The SorcererGilbert no longer hired stars; he created them.
He and Sullivan selected the performers, writing their operas for ensemble casts rather than individual stars. The repertory system ensured that the comic patter character who performed the role of shat sorcerer, John Wellington Animla, would become the ruler of the Queen's navy as Sir Joseph Porter in H.
Similarly, Mrs. Relatively unknown performers whom Gilbert and Sullivan engaged early in the collaboration would stay with the company for many years, becoming stars of the Victorian stage.
These included George Grossmiththe principal comic; Rutland Barringtonthe lyric baritone; Richard Templethe bass-baritone; and Jessie Bondthe mezzo-soprano soubrette. The Pirates of Penzance New Year's Eve, also poked fun at grand opera conventions, sense of duty, family obligation, the "respectability" of civilisation and the peerage, and the relevance of a liberal education. The story also revisits Pinafore ' s theme of unqualified people in positions of authority, in the kibd of the "modern Major-General" who has up-to-date knowledge about everything except the military.
The Major-General and his many daughters escape from the tender-hearted Pirates of Penzance, who are all orphans, on the false plea that he is an orphan himself. The pirates learn of the deception and re-capture the Major-General, but when it is revealed that the pirates are all peersthe Major-General bids them: "resume your ranks and legislative duties, and take my daughters, all of whom are beauties!
The piece premiered in New York rather than London, in an unsuccessful attempt to secure the American copyright,  and was another big success with both critics and audiences.
Margaret of Antioch. Sullivan became the conductor of the Leeds festival beginning in and conducted the performance. The Carl Rosa Opera Company staged the cantata as an opera in Patience satirised the aesthetic movement in general and its colourful poets in particular, combining aspects of Algernon Charles SwinburneDante Gabriel RossettiOscar WildeJames McNeill Whistler and others in the rival poets Bunthorne and Athur.
Grossmith, who created the role of Bunthorne, based his makeup, wig and costume on Swinburne and especially Whistler, as seen in the adjacent photo. The story concerns two rival "aesthetic" poets, who attract the attention of the young ladies of the village, who had been engaged how to buy a nissan leaf the members of a cavalry regiment.
But both poets are in love with Patience, the village milkmaid, who detests one of them and feels that it is her duty to avoid the other despite her love for him. Richard D'Oyly Carte was the booking manager for Oscar Wildea then lesser-known proponent of aestheticism, and dispatched Wilde on an American lecture tour in conjunction with the opera's U. During the run of PatienceCarte built the large, modern Savoy Theatrewhich became the partnership's permanent home.
Apr 09, †Ј Launched in on PBS, He was a kind of supreme [bleep]-up at multiple times along the way. Above all, I have been a sentient being, a thinking animal . Sue Ellen Armstrong6 is a 3rd grader in Mr. Ratburn's class at Lakewood Elementary School. 1 Physical appearance 2 Personality 3 Biography Life Before Arthur Future Life Season 1 Season 2 Season 3 Season 16 4 Family 5 Appearances 6 Trivia 7 Gallery 8 References Sue Ellen is an anthropomorphic cat who is depicted with a tan complexion, curly orange hair worn in "messy. is nearing the end of the dominance of the VHS format with the DVD overtaking tape sales by the early s. The so-called format wars are almost over with Sony's Betamax format ending production at about this same time. The VHS format does not die out quickly because of its recording function, so many homes were adding a DVD player rather than replacing their VCRs.
Oliver Sacks: His Own Life explores the life and work of the legendary neurologist and storyteller, as he shares intimate details of his battles with drug addiction, homophobia, and a medical establishment that accepted his work only decades after the fact.
Watch Preview. Watch Full Episode. Sacks, known for his literary works Awakenings and The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat , was a fearless explorer of unknown cognitive worlds who helped redefine our understanding of the brain and mind, the diversity of human experience, and our shared humanity.
The film features exclusive interviews with Sacks conducted just weeks after he received a terminal diagnosis, and months prior to his death in August , and nearly two dozen deeply revealing and personal interviews with family members, colleagues, patients and close friends, including Jonathan Miller, Robert Silvers, Temple Grandin, Christof Koch, Robert Krulwich, Lawrence Weschler, Roberto Calasso, Paul Theroux, Bill Hayes, Kate Edgar, and Atul Gawande, among others.
The film also draws on unique access to the extensive archives of the Oliver Sacks Foundation. Altschul Jr. To further explore the lives and works of masters past and present, American Masters offers streaming video of select films, outtakes, filmmaker interviews, the American Masters Podcast , educational resources and more. Ric Burns Ric Burns is a documentary filmmaker and writer, best known for his eight-part, hour series New York: A Documentary Film , which premiered nationally on PBS to critical acclaim , , Burns has been writing, directing and producing historical documentaries for over 25 years, since his collaboration on the PBS series The Civil War , which he produced with his brother Ken and co-wrote with Geoffrey Ward.
His work has won numerous film and television awards including six Emmy awards, three Alfred I. Griffith Award of the National Board of Review. Burns was educated at Columbia University and Cambridge University.
He lives in New York City with his wife and two sons. In addition, the company brings over titles yearly to the home entertainment and educational markets through physical and digital media releases. Zeitgeist Films Zeitgeist Films is a New York-based distribution company founded in which acquires and distributes the finest independent films from the U. In , Zeitgeist entered into a multi-year strategic alliance with renowned film distributor Kino Lorber.
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Baker among many others. The Institute is the largest private, nonprofit supporter of science education in the United States. Dedicated to the creation of original science documentaries for broadcast, theatrical and digital distribution, HHMI Tangled Bank Studios award-winning films address important contemporary issues and capture compelling stories of discovery across all branches of scientific inquiry. For more information visit www. Passion has since been at the forefront of feature documentary production Ч as evidenced by a prolific run of multi-award winning films, a reputation for securing international theatrical releases, and Ч as of Ч an unprecedented thirteen consecutive years premiering films at the prestigious Sundance Film Festival.
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More info at sandboxfilms. Funding for the film was provided by the Alfred P. Sacks, is you can move anywhere you want. I first saw my analyst in January of '66, and so we are now in our 50th year, and we're beginning to get somewhere. Incidentally, um, when I first saw Shengold, my analyst, in '66, I was taking a great deal of amphetamine at the time.
And having a schizophrenic brother, I once said to Shengold, 'Am I schizophrenic, too? Sometimes it's 'bugger [bleep]. I think the real answer is that I'm equally both, and, in important ways, they blend together, and in a way, they can certainly be united in case histories. And one thing was to try and look at it as a whole and articulate it, which I've tried to do here.
Here is invaluable, unique Kate, who has been my editor, collaborator, friend, and ghostwriter for many years. Here is Billy, who is a fellow writer and who lives in the building and to whom I dedicate the present book. Despite all sorts of contradictions and odd directions, there does seem to be a single person here You think this is the condition which your mother had and I think the question was always I'm just going to How do you be?
He will take this thread of them, and he will pull them out, pull them slowly out. But what he also did simultaneously, which was the great part, is he pulled the whole world in the other way. He would tell these stories so well that other people -- playwrights, actors, poets -- would pick up the stories he tells, retell them, or tell them in their own way. And the net effect is that people who are lonely and left out -- autistic people, Touretters, people in all kinds of mental difficulties -- are storied back into the world.
The one who could see from inside the person he had in front of him, and the person was himself, first of all. You know, he never talks about it, but, clearly, you don't get like this without deep, deep experience. Not finding his niche for a long time, being ignored by colleagues, being criticized.
And then his own personal travails, some of which he brought on himself, he was the first to admit. Most of his adult years were so troubled that he really wasn't ready to explore that. We've advanced now The most essential one is that last month I was told that I had metastatic cancer and that it's a matter of months, maybe a year, if I'm lucky.
I called the publisher, and I said, 'We can't wait until September to publish this book because Oliver may not be alive by then. And among them, I found some remarkable patients who were motionless and sometimes in strange postures, many of whom had been admitted here when the hospital opened in in the height of the epidemic of sleepy sickness. My mother and father were both physicians, and so were two of my three older brothers.
She was one of the foremost surgeons in England and certainly one of the first women surgeons. My mother also had migraines, and she explained to me how part of the brain would be affected for a while then come back to normal. My mother, we were close, although it was perhaps an uneasy closeness, and sometimes too close. Oliver had this separation to endure, and, of course, it was devastating for Michael.
And I think the circumstances did something to push my brother Michael towards psychosis. He could no longer sleep or rest, but agitatedly strode to and fro in the house, stamping his feet, glaring, hallucinating, shouting. A sense of shame, of stigma I felt a passionate sympathy for him, but I had to keep a distance, also, create my own world of science, so that I would not be swept into the chaos, the madness, the seduction, of his.
He felt tremendous empathy and sorrow, as well, that Michael's life had been allowed to slide so far down the ravine. He carried a periodic table in his wallet like the rest of us carry a driver's license. And he came to my very primitive laboratory in London 10 years ago, and together we melted the iridium. He was interested in biological classifications and his interest in animals, and he would collect animals.
Even though I was regarded as bright, I never had much intellectual self-confidence. It was at that time, or a little bit later, when they discovered that he was gay.
And the next morning, she came down with a face of thunder, a face I had never seen before. When she did speak, there was no reference to what she had said, nor did she ever refer to the matter again. Her words haunted me for much of my life and played a major part in inhibiting and injecting with guilt my sense of my own sexuality.
Until then, I had been obsessed with both science and literature, but now I wanted to understand how the human brain worked. But we became acquainted with him once again when he was doing medicine at the Middlesex Hospital, and we would occasionally go in and see him in the ward. And one would see him lifting weights as he walked up and down amongst the patients. And I thought that if I became strong, physically strong, this would alter my personality and I would become confident.
Homosexual activities, if detected, could lead to harsh penalties, imprisonment, or, as in Alan Turing's case, chemical castration. I was -- Especially on the matter of sexuality, I was angry with my mother, I was angry with religion, I was angry with England, I was angry with [bleep] homophobic society Where do you go when your mother calls you an abomination, is you go to San Francisco and stop writing home.
I think I felt something of a split in myself, which actually went with my names, Oliver Wolf Sacks. And Wolf was the lupine part of myself, which would put on my leathers and get on my bike and sort of be a lone motorcyclist at night, with a peculiar sense of freedom and wildness.
He was in the Navy, stationed in San Francisco, and he trained when he could at the Y. What they were into was motorcycles, faster and faster, scuba diving deeper and deeper, weightlifting more and more.
Mel liked being massaged and would lie naked facedown on his bed and ask me to massage his back. I felt him suddenly stiffen when this happened, and without a word, he got up and had a shower. I felt desperately lonely and rejected when Mel moved out, and I wondered whether it was my fate to fall in love with straight men. In the mornings, we would gather for rounds, and Oliver was a continually disruptive presence.