Earth would suffer '20-year-long winter and worldwide famine' after nuclear war
Feb 11, · A nuclear war would start fires in cities and industrial areas and pump a lot of smoke into the stratosphere above where we dattiktok.com: Walt Bonner. On the other hand, a full-scale nuclear war refers to an all-out nuclear attack designed to completely destroy the target county.
Nuclear war has been a what is the best cat food for overweight cats since the creation of the atomic bomb. Learn more about what could happen during a nuclear apocalypse. Endless films and books have dealt with the nuclear apocalypse and its aftermath, but what would a nuclear apocalypse really look like?
Current American bombs can range from 50 to 1, kilotons, so the explosion would be that much bigger. And with the amount of fuel in cities, the fires produced would burn for a very long time.
A nuclear war would start fires in cities and industrial areas and pump a lot of smoke into the stratosphere above where we live.
There are more countries with nuclear weapons these days--nine total. A nuclear winter would kill off a lot of crops, but how long would it take for agriculture to bounce back? According to Robock, it would depend on how much smoke went into the air and what time of year the nuclear strikes took place.
In other words, some crops may survive, but not enough to keep everyone fed, and many would starve in the years it would take to bounce back to normal.
Robock and his team have been doing research with climate model computer programs to calculate how the climate would respond to different amounts of smoke. They discovered that the ocean would get colder at a slower rate than the land. The colder temperatures would lead to lower levels of carbonate for about a decade, which could break down the shells of certain fish. And this carbon dioxide would make the oceans more acidic how to install foam crown molding it would start to dissolve the shells of different shellfish and corals.
This cooling and chemistry shift of the oceans would take a couple of years, and then last for a decade or so. It remains unknown if sea life could adapt. So with all of the food gone and the plants dead, we can all go fishing--at least for a while. See you at the fish fry. The study can be found in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. What happens in a nuclear apocalypse? Arrives Weekly.
A mutually-assured obsession
Consequences of a large nuclear war Following a large U.S.-Russian nuclear war, enormous fires created by nuclear explosions in cities and industrial areas cause million tons of smoke to be lofted high into the stratosphere. The attack lasts two hours and strikes hundreds of military, government and economic targets. Dec 16, · The idea that nuclear weapons have a unique psychological effect emerged following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during dattiktok.com: Becky Alexis-Martin.
Nuclear warfare sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare is a military conflict or political strategy which deploys nuclear weaponry.
Nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction ; in contrast to conventional warfare , nuclear warfare can produce destruction in a much shorter time and can have a long-lasting radiological result. A major nuclear exchange would have long-term effects, primarily from the fallout released, and could also lead to a " nuclear winter " that could last for decades, centuries, or even millennia after the initial attack.
So far, two nuclear weapons have been used in the course of warfare , both by the United States near the end of World War II. On August 6, , a uranium gun-type device code name " Little Boy " was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later, on August 9, a plutonium implosion-type device code name " Fat Man " was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki.
Together, these two bombings resulted in the deaths of approximately , people. After World War II, nuclear weapons were also developed by the Soviet Union , the United Kingdom , France , and the People's Republic of China , which contributed to the state of conflict and extreme tension that became known as the Cold War.
In , India , and in , Pakistan , two countries that were openly hostile toward each other, developed nuclear weapons. Israel s and North Korea are also thought to have developed stocks of nuclear weapons, though it is not known how many.
The Israeli government has never admitted nor denied having nuclear weapons, although it is known to have constructed the reactor and reprocessing plant necessary for building nuclear weapons. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the resultant end of the Cold War, the threat of a major nuclear war between the two nuclear superpowers was generally thought to have declined.
The possibility of using nuclear weapons in war is usually divided into two subgroups, each with different effects and potentially fought with different types of nuclear armaments. The first, a limited nuclear war  sometimes attack or exchange , refers to a small-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more belligerents.
A "limited nuclear war" could include targeting military facilities—either as an attempt to pre-emptively cripple the enemy's ability to attack as a defensive measure, or as a prelude to an invasion by conventional forces, as an offensive measure. This term could apply to any small-scale use of nuclear weapons that may involve military or civilian targets or both. The second, a full-scale nuclear war , could consist of large numbers of nuclear weapons used in an attack aimed at an entire country, including military, economic, and civilian targets.
Such an attack would almost certainly destroy the entire economic, social, and military infrastructure of the target nation, and would probably have a devastating effect on Earth's biosphere. Some Cold War strategists such as Henry Kissinger  argued that a limited nuclear war could be possible between two heavily armed superpowers such as the United States and the Soviet Union. Some predict, however, that a limited war could potentially " escalate " into a full-scale nuclear war.
Others [ who? Even the most optimistic predictions [ by whom? More pessimistic predictions argue that a full-scale nuclear war could potentially bring about the extinction of the human race , or at least its near extinction, with only a relatively small number of survivors mainly in remote areas and a reduced quality of life and life expectancy for centuries afterward. However, such predictions, assuming total war with nuclear arsenals at Cold War highs, have not been without criticism.
A study presented at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in December asserted that even a small-scale regional nuclear war could produce as many direct fatalities as all of World War II and disrupt the global climate for a decade or more. In a regional nuclear conflict scenario in which two opposing nations in the subtropics each used 50 Hiroshima-sized nuclear weapons c.
The authors of the study estimated that as much as five million tons of soot could be released, producing a cooling of several degrees over large areas of North America and Eurasia including most of the grain-growing regions. The cooling would last for years and could be "catastrophic", according to the researchers. Either a limited or full-scale nuclear exchange could occur during an accidental nuclear war , in which the use of nuclear weapons is triggered unintentionally.
A number of these scenarios actually occurred during the Cold War, though none resulted in the use of nuclear weapons. During the final stages of World War II in , the United States conducted atomic raids on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , the first on August 6, , and the second on August 9, These two events were the only times nuclear weapons have been used in combat.
For six months before the atomic bombings, the U. The worst air raid to occur during the process was not the nuclear attacks, but the Operation Meetinghouse raid on Tokyo. On the night of March 9—10, , Operation Meetinghouse commenced and Boeing B Superfortress bombers took off to raid, with of them dropping 1, tons of incendiaries and explosives on Tokyo. Each bomber carried 6 tons of bombs. A total of , bombs, which amount to 1, tons of bombs, were used in the bombing.
Within a few hours of the raid, it had killed an estimated , people and destroyed 41 km 2 16 sq mi of the city and , buildings in a single night — the deadliest bombing raid in military aviation history other than the atomic raids on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In late June , as the U.
Based on the U. The U. President Harry S. Truman realized he could not afford such a horrendous casualty rate, especially since over , American combatants had already died fighting in both the European and the Pacific theaters of the war. It stated that if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction".
In response to the rejection, President Truman authorized the dropping of the atomic bombs. At the time of its use, there were only two atomic bombs available, and despite the fact that more were in production back in mainland U. On August 6, , the uranium-type nuclear weapon codenamed " Little Boy " was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima with an energy of about 15 kilotons of TNT 63, gigajoules , destroying nearly 50, buildings including the headquarters of the 2nd General Army and Fifth Division and killing approximately 70, people, including 20, Japanese combatants and 20, Korean slave laborers.
Six days after the detonation over Nagasaki, Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers on August 15, , signing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, , officially ending the Pacific War and, therefore, World War II, as Germany had already signed its Instrument of Surrender on May 8, , ending the war in Europe.
The two atomic bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan's adopting of the Three Non-Nuclear Principles , which forbade the nation from developing nuclear armaments. After the successful Trinity nuclear test July 16, , which was the very first nuclear detonation, the Manhattan project lead manager J. Robert Oppenheimer recalled:. We knew the world would not be the same.
A few people laughed, a few people cried, most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture the Bhagavad Gita. Vishnu is trying to persuade the prince that he should do his duty and to impress him takes on his multiarmed form and says, "Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.
Immediately after the atomic bombings of Japan, the status of atomic weapons in international and military relations was unclear. Presumably, the United States hoped atomic weapons could offset the Soviet Union's larger conventional ground forces in Eastern Europe , and possibly be used to pressure Soviet leader Joseph Stalin into making concessions.
Under Stalin, the Soviet Union pursued its own atomic capabilities through a combination of scientific research and espionage directed against the American program. The Soviets believed that the Americans, with their limited nuclear arsenal, were unlikely to engage in any new world wars, while the Americans were not confident they could prevent a Soviet takeover of Europe, despite their atomic advantage.
Within the United States the authority to produce and develop nuclear weapons was removed from military control and put instead under the civilian control of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This decision reflected an understanding that nuclear weapons had unique risks and benefits that were separate from other military technology known at the time.
For several years after World War II , the United States developed and maintained a strategic force based on the Convair B bomber that would be able to attack any potential enemy from bomber bases in the United States.
It deployed atomic bombs around the world for potential use in conflicts. Over a period of a few years, many in the American defense community became increasingly convinced of the invincibility of the United States to a nuclear attack.
Indeed, it became generally believed that the threat of nuclear war would deter any strike against the United States. Many proposals were suggested to put all American nuclear weapons under international control by the newly formed United Nations , for example as an effort to deter both their usage and an arms race. However, no terms could be arrived at that would be agreed upon by both the United States and the Soviet Union.
On August 29, , the Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan see also Soviet atomic bomb project. Scientists in the United States from the Manhattan Project had warned that, in time, the Soviet Union would certainly develop nuclear capabilities of its own. Nevertheless, the effect upon military thinking and planning in the United States was dramatic, primarily because American military strategists had not anticipated the Soviets would "catch up" so soon.
However, at this time, they had not discovered that the Soviets had conducted significant nuclear espionage of the project from spies at Los Alamos National Laboratory , the most significant of which was done by the theoretical physicist Klaus Fuchs. With the monopoly over nuclear technology broken, worldwide nuclear proliferation accelerated.
The United Kingdom tested its first independent atomic bomb in , followed by France developing its first atomic bomb in and then China developing its first atomic bomb in While much smaller than the arsenals of the United States and the Soviet Union, Western Europe 's nuclear reserves were nevertheless a significant factor in strategic planning during the Cold War.
A top-secret White paper , compiled by the Royal Air Force and produced for the British Government in , estimated that British V bombers carrying nuclear weapons were capable of destroying key cities and military targets in the Soviet Union, with an estimated 16 million deaths in the Soviet Union half of whom were estimated to be killed on impact and the rest fatally injured before bomber aircraft from the U.
Strategic Air Command reached their targets. Although the Soviet Union had nuclear weapon capabilities at the beginning of the Cold War , the United States still had an advantage in terms of bombers and weapons. In any exchange of hostilities, the United States would have been capable of bombing the Soviet Union, whereas the Soviet Union would have more difficulty carrying out the reverse mission. The widespread introduction of jet -powered interceptor aircraft upset this imbalance somewhat by reducing the effectiveness of the American bomber fleet.
In Curtis LeMay was placed in command of the Strategic Air Command and instituted a program to update the bomber fleet to one that was all-jet. During the early s the B Stratojet and B Stratofortress were introduced, providing the ability to bomb the Soviet Union more easily. Before the development of a capable strategic missile force in the Soviet Union, much of the war-fighting doctrine held by western nations revolved around using a large number of smaller nuclear weapons in a tactical role.
It is debatable whether such use could be considered "limited" however, because it was believed that the United States would use its own strategic weapons mainly bombers at the time should the Soviet Union deploy any kind of nuclear weapon against civilian targets. Douglas MacArthur , an American general, was fired by President Harry Truman , partially because he persistently requested permission to use his own discretion in deciding whether to utilize atomic weapons on the People's Republic of China in during the Korean War.
Let us imagine how many people would die if war breaks out. There are 2. If it is a little higher it could be half I say that if the worst came to the worst and one-half dies, there will still be one-half left, but imperialism would be razed to the ground and the whole world would become socialist. After a few years there would be 2. The concept of a " Fortress North America " emerged during the Second World War and persisted into the Cold War to refer to the option of defending Canada and the United States against their enemies if the rest of the world were lost to them.
This option was rejected with the formation of NATO and the decision to permanently station troops in Europe. In the summer of Project Vista started, in which project analysts such as Robert F. Christy looked at how to defend Western Europe from a Soviet invasion. The emerging development of tactical nuclear weapons was looked upon as a means to give Western forces a qualitative advantage over the Soviet numerical supremacy in conventional weapons. Several scares about the increasing ability of the Soviet Union's strategic bomber forces surfaced during the s.
The defensive response by the United States was to deploy a fairly strong "layered defense" consisting of interceptor aircraft and anti-aircraft missiles , like the Nike , and guns, like the M51 Skysweeper , near larger cities.
However, this was a small response compared to the construction of a huge fleet of nuclear bombers. The principal nuclear strategy was to massively penetrate the Soviet Union. Because such a large area could not be defended against this overwhelming attack in any credible way, the Soviet Union would lose any exchange.